Verbs

A verb is a word that is used to show action or state of being.

See Parts of the Sentence in Related Links for more information.

Adjectives

Adjectives only describe nouns or pronouns. They tell number (such as five) and what kind (such as cute).

I liked the five, cute kittens.

Use:

Usually, adjectives go before the nouns or pronouns they describe.

She is a good cook.

Sometimes, they follow a sensing verb like to be, feel, look, seem, smell, taste, or feel.

He looks sad.

Adverbs

Adverbs are words (or groups of words) that describe an verb, and adjective, or another adverb. Adverbs tell something about how.

Here are examples of sentences using adverbs to describe verbs:

She spoke quietly. - The adverb quietly describes how she spoke.

The river ran swiftly. - The adverb swiftly describes how the river ran.

Adverbs can also describe adjectives.

Those dogs are really big. The adverb really is describing how big those dogs are.

The tree is very tall. 

Adverbs also describe other adverbs.

She spoke extremely quickly.

Making Adjectives into Adverbs:

Often adverbs are formed by adding –ly to an adjective.
loud/loudly

quick/quickly

Exceptions:

Not all adverbs end in –ly. She sings very well. (The word very is an adverb.)
Some adjectives end in –ly. That dog is quite friendly. (The word quite is an adverb.)

Well vs. Good:

Usually the word well is the adverb form of the adjective good.

He is a good athlete. He swims well.

Sometimes the word well is used to mean “healthy.”

He does not look like a well child.

Comparisons:

Usually –er and –est are added to adjectives to show they are more or the most of something. Sometimes we have to say more and the most.

Words that are one-syllable long use –er and –est: small, smaller, smallest.

Words that are most than one-syllable long, usually use more and most: intelligent, more intelligent, most intelligent. 

Comparison to another is called comparative. Comparison to all of the same group is called superlative.

Formation of Comparisons
One syllable More than one syllable form of comparison
small intelligent  
smaller more intelligent comparative
smallest most intelligent superlative

Irregular Comparisons:

The comparison forms of good, well, bad, and badly are irregular. You must memorize them.

Comparison Forms of Good, Well, and Bad
  comparative superlative
good better best
bad worse worst

Conjunctive Adverbs – Fact, I’m Thin

There are many, many different conjunctive adverbs. However, these are some of the most common:

Conjunctive (connecting) adverbs
Fact I'm Thin
furthermore indeed then
also moreover however
consequently   in fact
therefore   nevertheless

Rules for using conjunctive adverbs:

1. The comma always goes immediately after the conjunctive adverb.  It is considered an introductory word.

2. When used, conjunctive adverbs belong at the beginning of the sentence. 

You can use a period before it. Moreover, there is another way.
The other way is to use a semicolon; in fact, this is a very sophisticated method.

*Be careful about the word “however” in the middle of a sentence. Sometimes it is a conjunctive adverb needing a period or semicolon before it and a comma after it, and sometimes it an interjection which only needs commas. If you have two complete sentences joined, it is a conjunctive adverb. If there is only one complete sentence, it is just an adverb.

I was late for class; however, the teacher didn’t notice. (conjunctive adverb)
She usually, however, notices everything. (adverb)

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